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  • End Notes

    1 The terms "divinity" and "deity" can be confusing.  In most cases the terms have identical meanings.  However, some have used "divine" to refer to an angel, since it came from God.  However, an angel would not be a deity, since it is not by its nature God.
    2 This book will only be concerned with the deity of Jesus.
    3 JW's may on occasion say that Jesus is a "god."  However, they do not believe that he is "God" in the fullest sense of deity.  In their opinion, he is still a created being, unequal to God in his essence.
    4 New Testament scholar, Raymond Brown, explains multiple ways of understanding Titus 2:13, "the appearance of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ."  Is Paul referring to our great God and Savior Jesus Christ as two persons?  Or is he saying Jesus Christ is our great God-and-Savior?  Naturally, one can see how it can be understood both ways.  Brown notes that several careful scholars have understood the first option to be the more correct, while the latter is virtually the unanimous view held by grammarians and lexicographers. Raymond E. Brown. An Introduction to New Testament Christology (Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1994), pp. 181-182.
    5 The Septuagint is the Greek Translation of the Old Testament.  This was the common translation in Jesus' day and used by the New Testament writers the majority of the time when quoting the Old Testament.  Genesis 1:1 in the Septuagint reads: "In the arche (beginning), God created the heavens and the earth."
    6 The Apostle Paul was particularly fond of using arche in this sense.  Of the twelve (12) times he used it in his writings, nine (9) are in the political sense: Romans 8:38; 1 Corinthians 15:24; Ephesians 1:21; 3:10; 6:12; Colossians 1:16; 2:10, 15; Titus 3:1.
    7 The translation "by God" is possible, but it is not required.
    8 Notice that the word "other" is in brackets.  This means the word is not found in the Greek text but was inserted by the translators of the NWT to clarify their interpretation.  Their Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures provides their rationale in the footnote to verse 16, "All [other], as in Luke 11:41, 42" (p. 880).  But these are not even good texts to support the NWT's interpretation, because "other" might be inserted in order to smooth the translation, but it is not required.  Hebrews 2:10 has a Greek construction closer to Colossians 1:16, and yet "other" is not inserted in the NWT.  Therefore, the NWT's insertion of "other" in Colossians 1:16 is clearly based on the Watchtower's assumption that Jesus was created and not because the Greek requires it.
    9 For other examples see Genesis 4:10 and Psalm 85:10.  Also see E. W. Bullinger, Figures Of Speech Used In The Bible: Explained and Illustrated (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1968).
    10 See also 1:20-21; 3:13-16; 4:5-9; 9:1-6.  Also see Psalm 85:10. 
    11 One may also ask if "Wisdom" is Jesus, why refer to Him in the feminine gender.
    12 This becomes especially clear when Proverbs 8 is taken in context with Proverbs 7 and 9. Verses 22-30 would seem completely misplaced if they referred to Jesus.  However, they fit right in if "wisdom" is taken as a character quality which Solomon personifies.
    13 Genesis 16.
    14 Genesis 17:20-21.
    15The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Vol. 2, p. 725 states that the word "is used to mark out Jesus uniquely above all earthly and heavenly beings; in its use the present soteriological [salvific] meaning is more strongly stressed than that of origin."
    16 Verses 3, 20, 35, 49.
    17 1 Samuel 8.
    18 1 Samuel 9:15-17; 10:1.
    19 No other major translation renders it as such.
    20en auto.
    21meta auton.
    22synesteken.  See Kittel and Friedrich, eds. Theological Dictionary Of The New Testament, Volume VII (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), p. 897.
    23proteuon. Ibid., Volume VI, pp. 881-882.
    24 Ibid., pp. 877-878.
    25 Matthew 19:4-5.
    26 Ephesians 5:22-23; Colossians 3:18.
    27 Brown. An Introduction to New Testament Christology, pp. 174, 189.
    28 For the writings of Ignatius and other early Church Fathers see J. B. Lightfoot and J. R. Harmer, eds. and transl., The Apostolic Fathers, Second Edition (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992).
    29 Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 3:3:4.  In this passage, Irenaeus also claims to have spoken with Polycarp when he (i.e., Irenaeus) was young.  Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 4:14.  In the latter, Eusebius quotes Irenaeus.
    30 Polycarp. Philippians 12:2.
    31 The topic of how the early Church Fathers viewed Jesus is beyond the scope of this book.  However, you may find an article on the subject by this author on his web site at www.risenjesus.com.  Go to the "Articles" section and select "The Early Church Fathers on Jesus."
    32Harris, Archer, Waltke, eds. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Volume 2 (Chicago: Moody Press, 1980), p. 907.
    33  Richard Patterson, "Joel," in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, Frank E. Gaebelein and Richard P. Polycyn, eds. Volume 7 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1985), p. 243.
    34 Harris, Archer, Waltke, eds. TWOT, Vol. 1, p. 149.
    35Dr. Ron Sauer, Professor of New Testament at Moody Bible Institute, kindly pointed this out to me.  Dr. Sauer was the last student of the late F. F. Bruce.  When I studied under him at Liberty University, he devoted 8-14 hours daily to his personal study in the Greek New Testament and instilled a passion in this student and many others to learn the Greek language of the New Testament.
    36NIDNTT, Vol. 2, p. 86. TDNT, Vol. III, p. 123.  See Romans 1:20 for its only use in the New Testament.  Interestinly, the NST has rendered the word "Godship."
    37NIDNTT, Vol. 2, p. 86. TDNT, Vol. III, p. 119.  Also, see Fritz Rienecker.  A Linguistic Key To The Greek New Testament.  (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1980), p. 573.
    38Revelation 22 is somewhat difficult to follow because John changes from one speaker to another without warning, as he seems to do in verses 7, 12, and probably 17.  The KJV (Red Letter editions) and the NIV seem to present the conversation most clearly.  The NASB seems confused on where to place the quotation marks.  It has Jesus speaking in verses 6 and 7.  But that is awkward because it would force the Father to send the angel in verse 6 and then Jesus to send the same angel for the same purpose in verse 16.  The NWT is likewise confused, identifying Jesus as the angel in verse 6 and also as the one who sends the same angel (quite a task to send yourself) in verse 16.
    39Should You Believe in the Trinity? New York: Watchtower Bible And Tract Society of New York, Inc., 1989, pp. 26-28.
    40The same is also found in The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures (Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible And Tract Society Of New York, Inc., 1985), pp. 11-39-1140.
    41The article is specifically identified in Appendix 2A of The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures, pp. 1140 as Philip B. Harner, "Qualitative Anarthrous Predicate Nouns: Mark 15:39 and John 1:1," in Journal of Biblical Literature, ed. Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Vol. 92, 1973, pp. 75-87.
    42King James Version, American Standard Version, New American Standard Bible, New International Version, Revised Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, New American Bible, New Jerusalem Bible, New English Bible, Revised English Bible ("what God was, the Word was"), Amplified Bible ("the Word was God Himself"), Today's English Version ("he was the same as God"), New Living Translation ("he was God.")
    43Harner, p. 84.
    44 Harner, p. 85.
    45 Harner, p. 85.  New Testament scholar, Murray Harris agrees.  See his excellent book, Jesus As God: The New Testament Use of Theos in Reference to Jesus (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992), p. 70.  The late New Testament scholar, Raymond Brown agrees in An Introduction to New Testament Christology, pp. 187-188.
    46Harner, p. 85.
    47"god" verses "God," much like "mighty god" verses "Almighty God."
    48Harner, p. 87.
    49e.g., John 4:20; 5:15; 20:31. A. T. Robertson. A Grammar Of The New Testament In The Light Of Historical Research (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1934), pp. 759-761, 795 and H. E. Dana and Julius R. Mantey. A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (Toronto: The Macmillan Company, 1955), pp. 139-140, 148-149.
    50As mentioned earlier, you may find an article on the subject of the early Church Fathers on Jesus by this author on his web site at www.risenjesus.com.  Go to the "Articles" section and select "The Early Church Fathers on Jesus."
    51Irenaeus. Against Heresies, Book 1, Ch 8; Book 3, Ch 11 (3 x's); Book 5, Ch 18.
    52Ibid., Book 1, Ch 8.
    53Origin. De Principiis, Book 1, Ch 2, Section 3.
    54Origin. Contra Celsus, Book 1, Ch 66 [1:66]; 3:62; 4:99; 5:22; 6:48, 61, 68; 69 (2 x's), 71; 7:17 (3 x's), 42; 8:15, 22, 39, 75.
    55Clement of Alexandria. The Instructor, Book 1, Ch 5.
    56For details, the reader may refer to the article by this author titled, "The Early Church Fathers on Jesus," located at www.risenjesus.com.  Click on the "Articles" tab.
    57  When cornered, JWs may likewise reply that they are not interested in debate.  You may reply "I'm not either.  But when it comes to something as important as the eternal destiny of our soul, important questions must be asked and answered."
    58There are actually 2 others but these are not readily apparent: Romans 8:33 reads theos ho dikaion ("God is the one who justifies") and John 10:34 that reads theoi este ("gods you are" or "You are gods."  59In Greek the subject is often contained in the verb as in this phrase.).
    The Greek Grammarians Dana and Mantey say that this statement "emphasizes Christ's participation in the essence of the divine nature" (A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament, p. 140).  " . . . and the word was deity.  The article points out the subject in these examples . . . nor was the word all of God, as it would mean if the article were also used with theos.  As it stands, the other persons of the Trinity may be implied in theos" (Ibid., pp. 148-149).
    60As the New Revised Standard Version translates it.
    61F.F. Bruce. The Epistles Of John (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1970), p. 142.